Imperial Roots of Global Trade, Journal of Economic Growth, 2020, Vol.:15(1), pp. 87-145.

Günes Gokmen, Wessel N. Vermeulen, Pierre-Louis Vézina



Empire Name Start End Countries
Elam 2500bce 539bce Iraq, Iran (2500bce-539bce)
Akkadian Empire 2350bce 2150bce Iraq (2350bce-2150bce), Saudi Arabia, Kuwait (2271bce-2150bce), Syria, Iran, Jordan, Turkey (2248bce-2150bce)
Neo-Sumerian (Ur III) Empire 2112bce 2004bce Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Iran (2112bce-2004bce)
Hittite Empire 1600bce 1178bce Turkey, Syria, Lebanon (1600bce-1178bce)
Egyptian Empire 1552bce 1069bce Sudan, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan (1552bce-1069bce)
Mittani Empire 1475bce 1275bce Syria, Iraq, Turkey (1475bce-1275bce)
Middle Assyrian Empire 1350bce 1200bce Syria, Iraq, Turkey (1350bce-1200bce)
NeoAssyrian Empire 911bce 609bce Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria (911bce-609bce), Lebanon (737bce-609bce), Israel, Armenia (712bce-609bce), Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Cyprus (671bce-609bce)
Kingdom of Kush 890bce 350bce Sudan, Egypt (890bce-350bce)
Urartu Kingdom 860bce 590bce Iran, Turkey, Armenia (860bce-590bce)
Macedonian Empire 808bce 148bce North Macedonia, Greece, Bulgaria (808bce-148bce), Albania (336bce-148bce), Moldova, Romania, Turkey (334bce-200bce), Cyprus (333bce-316bce), Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Egypt, Israel (331bce-200bce), Lebanon (331bce-301bce), Iran (331bce-312bce), Afghanistan, Turkmenistan (330bce-200bce), Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan (327bce-200bce), India (327bce-323bce)
Roman Empire 800bce 395ce Italy (800bce-395ce), Monaco (237bce-395ce), Malta (218bce-395ce), Spain (209bce-395ce), Portugal (206bce-395ce), Albania (146bce-395ce), Greece, Tunisia, San Marino, Turkey (133bce-395ce), Lebanon, North Macedonia (64bce-395ce), Israel (63bce-395ce), Cyprus, Netherlands, Morocco, Gibraltar, Luxembourg, Romania, Jordan, Moldova, Germany, Switzerland, Libya, France (44bce-395ce), Egypt (30bce-395ce), Syria, Palestine, Croatia (27bce-395ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Andorra, Slovenia, Austria (14bce-395ce), Hungary (9bce-395ce), Bulgaria, Belgium, Algeria (14ce-395ce), Liechtenstein (15ce-395ce), Armenia, Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, United Kingdom, Ukraine (100ce-395ce), Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran (115ce-395ce)
Median Empire 678bce 550bce Iran, Armenia, Turkey, Iraq (678bce-550bce), Azerbaijan (648bce-550bce)
NeoBabylonian Empire 626bce 539bce Iraq (626bce-539bce), Kuwait, Iran (614bce-539bce), Syria, Israel, Turkey (612bce-539bce), Lebanon (605bce-539bce), Egypt, Jordan, Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, Palestine (599bce-539bce)
Carthaginian Empire 550bce 201bce Tunisia (650bce-146bce), Libya, Algeria, Gibraltar (650bce-201bce), Spain (650bce-206bce), Italy, France, Malta (650bce-218bce)
Pandyan Empire 550bce 1550ce Sri Lanka, India (550bce-1550ce)
Achaemenid Empire 550bce 330bce Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia, Georgia (550bce-331bce), Cyprus (545bce-333bce), Lebanon, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria, Jordan (539bce-331bce), Israel (539bce-332bce), Oman (530bce-330bce), Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Palestine, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kuwait, Kazakhstan (530bce-331bce), Libya (525bce-331bce), Egypt (525bce-404bce), India (518bce-330bce), Ukraine, Russia, Moldova (513bce-331bce), North Macedonia (512bce-330bce), Bulgaria, Greece (512bce-479bce), Romania (410bce-331bce)
Delian League 478bce 404bce Greece, Turkey (478bce-404bce)
Nanda Empire 344bce 324bce Nepal, India, Bangladesh (344bce-324bce)
Armenian Empire 331bce 428ce Armenia (331bce-428ce), Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran, Georgia (300bce-428ce), Lebanon, Israel, Palestine (95bce-428ce)
Mauryan Empire 326bce 184bce India, Nepal (326bce-184bce), Iran, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan (305bce-184bce)
Seleucid Empire 312bce 64bce Syria, Turkey (312bce-64bce), Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Palestine (312bce-141bce), Greece (312bce-190bce), Iran (312bce-247bce), Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (312bce-256bce), Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan (312bce-275bce), Pakistan (307bce-141bce), India (307bce-256bce), Israel (301bce-110bce), Jordan (301bce-141bce), Lebanon (198bce-64bce), Cyprus (170bce-168bce)
Ptolemaic Empire 305bce 30bce Libya, Egypt (305bce-30bce), Israel (301bce-30bce), Lebanon (301bce-198bce), Cyprus (294bce-58bce), Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Palestine, Greece (275bce-133bce)
Pontic Empire 302bce 62ce Turkey (302bce-62ce), Greece, Ukraine, Georgia, Bulgaria, Russia, Romania (129bce-62ce)
Parthian Empire 247bce 224ce Iran (247bce-224ce), Turkmenistan (235bce-224ce), Kuwait, Azerbaijan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Bahrain (141bce-224ce), Israel (40bce-37bce), Armenia, Afghanistan (63ce-224ce), Iraq (141ce-224ce)
Hsuing-nu Empire 209bce 51bce Russia, China, Tajikistan, Mongolia (209bce-51bce)
Han Dynasty 206bce 220ce South Korea, China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia (206bce-220ce)
Shunga Empire 185bce 75bce Nepal, India, Bangladesh (185bce-75bce)
Nabataean Kingdom 168bce 106ce Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia (168bce-106ce)
Silla Kingdom 57bce 935ce South Korea, North Korea (57bce-935ce)
Goguryeo 37bce 668ce China, Russia, North Korea (37bce-668ce), South Korea (391ce-668ce)
Kingdom of Funan 1ce 500ce Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand (1ce-500ce)
Kushan Empire 30ce 375ce Tajikistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, China, Iran, Turkmenistan (30ce-375ce), India (130ce-375ce)
Aksumite Empire 100ce 960ce Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti (100ce-960ce), Yemen (100ce-480ce), Somalia (230ce-960ce)
Eastern Wu 220ce 280ce Vietnam, China (220ce-280ce)
Wei Empire 220ce 265ce North Korea, China (220ce-265ce)
Qin Dynasty 221ce 206ce China, Vietnam (221bce-206bce)
Sassanid Dynasty 224ce 651ce Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Iran (224ce-651ce), Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Iraq (224ce-643ce), Turkey, Syria (224ce-639ce), Kazakhstan, India (480ce-651ce), Russia (480ce-643ce), Kuwait (480ce-639ce), Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain (531ce-639ce), Tajikistan (570ce-651ce), Yemen (570ce-628ce), Israel (614ce-628ce), Qatar (621ce-639ce), Jordan, Libya, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine (621ce-628ce)
Gallic Empire 260ce 274ce Spain, Portugal, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, France (260ce-274ce)
Jin Dynasty 265--420 265ce 420ce Vietnam, Mongolia, China (265ce-420ce)
Palmyrene Empire 270ce 273ce Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt (270ce-273ce)
Gupta Empire 319ce 550ce Bangladesh, India, Nepal (319ce-550ce), Pakistan (375ce-550ce)
Rouran Khaganate 330ce 552ce Mongolia, Kazakhstan, China, Russia (330ce-552ce)
Hephthalite Empire 350ce 670ce Afghanistan (350ce-670ce), Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (408ce-670ce), China (460ce-670ce), India (467ce-670ce)
Hunnic Empire 370ce 469ce Moldova, Romania (370ce-550ce), Kazakhstan, Russia (370ce-469ce), Hungary (375ce-454ce), Ukraine (376ce-550ce), Belarus (376ce-469ce), Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Croatia (408ce-469ce), Austria (408ce-454ce), Poland (420ce-469ce), Germany (420ce-454ce)
Byzantine Empire 395ce 1453ce Turkey (395ce-1453ce), Greece (395ce-1350ce), Albania (395ce-1203ce), Cyprus (395ce-1191ce), Bulgaria (395ce-1185ce), North Macedonia (395ce-650ce), Egypt (395ce-641ce), Israel (395ce-637ce), Libya, Lebanon, Syria (476ce-650ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina (535ce-1183ce), Malta (535ce-870ce), Croatia (535ce-810ce), Slovenia (540ce-1204ce), Italy (540ce-1018ce), Algeria, Tunisia (540ce-717ce), France, Portugal, Morocco (540ce-650ce), Spain (552ce-624ce), Monaco (553ce-568ce), Armenia (635ce-697ce)
Western Roman Empire 395ce 476ce Switzerland, Italy, San Marino, France, Morocco, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Portugal, Spain, Luxembourg, Belgium, Croatia, Netherlands, Algeria, Liechtenstein, Tunisia, Austria, Gibraltar, Malta, Germany, Libya, Slovenia, Andorra, United Kingdom, Monaco (395ce-476ce)
Visigothic Kingdom 410ce 711ce France, Portugal, Spain (410ce-711ce)
Vandal Kingdom 425ce 533ce Libya, Algeria, Tunisia (425ce-533ce), France, Italy (455ce-533ce)
Frankish Empire 481ce 843ce France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg (481ce-843ce), Switzerland (531ce-843ce), Liechtenstein (537ce-843ce), Monaco (760ce-843ce), Austria, Spain, Germany, Italy (768ce-843ce), Andorra (803ce-843ce)
Ghana Empire 500ce 1150ce Mauritania, Mali (500ce-1150ce)
Liang Dynasty 502ce 557ce Vietnam, China (502ce-557ce)
Göktürk Khaganate 552ce 744ce Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, China (552ce-744ce)
Avar Khaganate 568ce 796ce Croatia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Ukraine, Slovak Republic, Romania, Austria, Bulgaria (568ce-796ce)
Sui Dynasty 581ce 618ce Vietnam, China (581ce-618ce)
Tang Dynasty 618ce 907ce Kazakhstan, Russia, Hong Kong, North Korea, China, Vietnam, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Tajikistan (618ce-907ce)
Tibetan Empire 618ce 842ce Afghanistan, India, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan (618ce-842ce)
Rashidun Caliphate 632ce 661ce Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates (632ce-661ce), Iraq, Jordan (634ce-661ce), Syria, Turkey (639ce-661ce), Iran, Armenia (643ce-661ce), Israel, Qatar, Uzbekistan, Cyprus, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Palestine, Sudan, Pakistan, Tunisia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Italy, Russia, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Tajikistan (650ce-661ce)
Srivijaya Empire 650ce 1377ce Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia (650ce-1377ce)
Khazar Khaganate 650ce 969ce Ukraine, Russia (650ce-969ce), Kazakhstan (850ce-969ce)
Umayyad Caliphate 661ce 750ce Cyprus, Greece, Somalia, Western Sahara, Jordan, Pakistan, Bahrain, Turkmenistan, Gibraltar, Libya, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Eritrea, Yemen, Israel, Oman, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon, Russia, Egypt, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Niger, Armenia, Chad, Kuwait, Qatar, Turkey, Iran, Mauritania, United Arab Emirates, Syria (661ce-750ce), Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria (683ce-750ce), Spain, Portugal, Andorra, France (711ce-750ce), Kazakhstan, Tajikistan (713ce-750ce)
First Bulgarian Empire 681ce 1018ce Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine, Turkey, Romania (681ce-1018ce), Hungary, Croatia (836ce-1018ce), Greece, North Macedonia (889ce-1018ce)
Republic of Venice 697ce 1797ce Slovenia, Croatia, Italy (697ce-1797ce), Montenegro (1420ce-1797ce), Albania, Greece (1489ce-1797ce), Cyprus (1489ce-1570ce)
Balhae 698ce 926ce Russia, North Korea, China (698ce-926ce)
Kanem Empire 700ce 1387ce Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria, Niger, Libya (700ce-1387ce)
Vikings 700ce 1263ce Denmark, Norway, Sweden (700ce-1066ce), Iceland (825ce-1100ce), Ireland (840ce-1171ce), Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Germany, Moldova (850ce-1000ce), Belgium, Russia (859ce-1000ce), United Kingdom (865ce-1263ce), Ukraine (880ce-1000ce), France (911ce-1100ce)
Uyghur Khaganate 744ce 840ce Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, China, Tajikistan, Russia, Mongolia (744ce-840ce)
Abbasid Empire 750ce 1258ce Syria, Eritrea, Oman, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Libya, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Russia, Kazakhstan, Bahrain, Lebanon, Turkmenistan, Iran, Qatar, Tunisia, Afghanistan, Italy, Kuwait, Turkey, Georgia, Pakistan, Algeria, Armenia, Jordan (750ce-1258ce), Egypt (750ce-909ce)
Pala Empire 750ce 1150ce India, Bangladesh (750ce-1150ce)
Holy Roman Empire 800ce 1806ce Germany, Slovenia, Liechtenstein, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Luxembourg (800ce-1806ce), Switzerland (800ce-1649ce), Croatia (800ce-963ce), Italy (962ce-1806ce), Monaco (1032ce-1220ce), France (1033ce-1806ce), Cyprus (1197ce-1247ce), Poland (1500ce-1806ce)
Khmer Empire 802ce 1431ce Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand (802ce-1431ce)
Samanid Dynasty 819ce 999ce Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkmenistan (819ce-999ce)
Tahirid Dynasty 821ce 873ce Turkmenistan, India, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Iran (821ce-873ce)
Great Moravian Empire 833ce 906ce Czech Republic, Slovak Republic (833ce-906ce), Poland, Hungary (877ce-894ce)
Chola Dynasty 850ce 1279ce India (850ce-1279ce), Indonesia, Thailand (925ce-1279ce), Sri Lanka (996ce-1279ce), Maldives (1014ce-1279ce), Bangladesh (1016ce-1279ce), Malaysia, Singapore (1023ce-1279ce)
Saffarid Dynasty 861ce 1003ce Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, India, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan (861ce-1003ce)
Kievan Rus 882ce 1240ce Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Latvia, Lithuania (882ce-1240ce)
Liao Dynasty 907ce 1125ce Mongolia, Kazakhstan, China, Russia, North Korea (907ce-1125ce)
Fatimid Caliphate 909ce 1171ce Libya, Tunisia, Algeria (909ce-1100ce), Morocco (920ce-987ce), Malta, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Saudi Arabia (969ce-1171ce), Lebanon, Syria, Italy (969ce-1100ce)
Goryeo 918ce 1392ce North Korea, South Korea (918ce-1392ce)
Caliphate of Córdoba 929ce 1031ce Spain, Andorra, Portugal, Morocco, Gibraltar (929ce-1031ce)
Buyid Dynasty 945ce 1055ce Iran, Turkey, Kuwait, Iraq (945ce-1055ce), Oman (977ce-1055ce)
Tui Tonga Empire 950ce 1865ce Tonga, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, Nauru, Samoa, Niue, Tuvalu, Fiji (950ce-1865ce)
KaraKhanid Khanate 955ce 1212ce Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, China, Uzbekistan (955ce-1212ce)
Song Dynasty 960ce 1279ce Hong Kong, China (960ce-1279ce)
Ghaznavid Dynasty 977ce 1186ce Turkmenistan, India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran (977ce-1186ce)
Scandinavian Empire 1016ce 1035ce Sweden, United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark (1016ce-1035ce)
Great Seljuq Empire 1037ce 1194ce Jordan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, Oman, Israel, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Lebanon, Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Kuwait, Uzbekistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Georgia, Russia (1037ce-1194ce)
Western Xia Dynasty 1038ce 1227ce Mongolia, China (1038ce-1227ce)
Almoravid Dynasty 1040ce 1147ce Portugal, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Algeria, Gibraltar (1040ce-1147ce), Spain, Morocco (1056ce-1147ce)
Uyunid dynasty 1076ce 1253ce Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Bahrain (1076ce-1253ce)
Khwarezmid Dynasty 1077ce 1231ce Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran, Turkmenistan, Georgia (1077ce-1231ce)
Mossi Empire 1100ce 1896ce Ghana, Burkina Faso (1100ce-1896ce)
Kara-Khitan Khanate 1124ce 1218ce Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia, Tajikistan, China, Mongolia (1124ce-1218ce)
Almohad Dynasty 1130ce 1269ce Morocco, Algeria (1130ce-1269ce), Gibraltar, Spain (1145ce-1269ce), Portugal (1148ce-1269ce), Western Sahara, Libya, Tunisia (1152ce-1269ce)
Ethiopian Empire 1137ce 1974ce Eritrea, Ethiopia (1137ce-1974ce)
Ghurid Dynasty 1150ce 1215ce Iran, India, Uzbekistan, Bangladesh, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan (1150ce-1215ce)
Plantagenet Empire 1154ce 1204ce France, United Kingdom (1154ce-1204ce), Ireland (1166ce-1204ce)
Ayyubid Dynasty 1171ce 1260ce Saudi Arabia, Israel, Palestine, Iraq, Tunisia, Libya, Syria, Lebanon, Sudan, Jordan, Yemen (1171ce-1260ce), Egypt (1171ce-1250ce), Turkey (1179ce-1260ce)
Second Bulgarian Empire 1185ce 1396ce Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Bulgaria (1185ce-1396ce), North Macedonia, Greece, Turkey (1230ce-1396ce), Albania (1230ce-1240ce)
Empire of Trebizond 1204ce 1461ce Ukraine, Turkey, Georgia (1204ce-1461ce)
Latin Empire 1204ce 1261ce Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece (1204ce-1261ce)
Delhi Sultanate 1206ce 1526ce Nepal, India (1206ce-1526ce), Bangladesh (1206ce-1316ce)
Mongol Empire 1206ce 1368ce Mongolia, China, Russia (1206ce-1294ce), Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, North Korea (1219ce-1294ce), Uzbekistan (1220ce-1368ce), Turkmenistan (1223ce-1294ce), Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, India (1227ce-1294ce), Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan (1237ce-1294ce), Croatia (1241ce-1368ce), Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Poland, Lithuania, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic (1258ce-1368ce), Syria, Iraq, Bangladesh (1259ce-1294ce), South Korea (1259ce-1259ce), Romania, Myanmar, Thailand, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Turkey, Laos, Vietnam (1279ce-1294ce)
Danish Colonial Empire 1219ce 1953ce Denmark (1219ce-1953ce), Estonia (1219ce-1227ce), Iceland (1380ce-1944ce), Norway (1380ce-1814ce), Sweden (1398ce-1523ce), India (1620ce-1825ce), Ghana (1658ce-1850ce), United States (1754ce-1917ce)
Mali Empire 1235ce 1650ce Mauritania, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea (1235ce-1650ce), Senegal (1235ce-1600ce), Niger (1235ce-1500ce)
Ajuran Sultanate 1250ce 1650ce Ethiopia, Somalia (1250ce-1650ce)
Mamluk Sultanate 1250ce 1517ce Jordan, Syria, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Turkey (1250ce-1517ce), Lebanon (1287ce-1517ce)
Angevin Empire 1266ce 1435ce France, Italy (1266ce-1435ce), Albania (1277ce-1368ce), Greece (1350ce-1435ce)
Yuan Dynasty 1271ce 1368ce Russia, South Korea, China, Mongolia (1271ce-1368ce), Myanmar (1277ce-1368ce), Laos, Bhutan (1280ce-1368ce), North Korea (1295ce-1368ce)
Ifat Sultanate 1285ce 1415ce Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti (1285ce-1415ce)
Khilji Dynasty 1290ce 1320ce Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (1290ce-1320ce)
Majapahit Empire 1293ce 1527ce Malaysia, Indonesia (1293ce-1527ce)
Golden Horde 1294ce 1502ce Moldova, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Russia, Belarus, Romania (1295ce-1502ce), Bulgaria, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan (1295ce-1456ce)
Chagatai Khanate 1295ce 1363ce Kazakhstan (1227ce-1363ce), India, Pakistan, China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (1295ce-1363ce)
Ilkhanate 1295ce 1335ce Tajikistan, Georgia, Syria, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Turkey, Armenia, Iraq, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Iran (1295ce-1335ce)
Ottoman Empire 1299ce 1922ce Turkey (1299ce-1922ce), Greece (1389ce-1922ce), Bulgaria (1389ce-1913ce), North Macedonia (1391ce-1922ce), Albania (1417ce-1912ce), Serbia (1451ce-1922ce), Montenegro (1477ce-1799ce), Ukraine, Georgia (1481ce-1922ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1481ce-1908ce), Russia (1481ce-1815ce), Croatia (1481ce-1700ce), Syria, Israel, Palestine, Lebanon (1516ce-1922ce), Jordan, Azerbaijan (1516ce-1920ce), Armenia (1517ce-1918ce), Egypt (1517ce-1914ce), Bahrain, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti (1520ce-1922ce), Libya (1521ce-1912ce), Iraq (1534ce-1919ce), Kuwait (1534ce-1914ce), Algeria (1536ce-1900ce), Yemen (1538ce-1839ce), Oman (1539ce-1829ce), Romania (1541ce-1877ce), Moldova (1541ce-1812ce), Hungary (1541ce-1699ce), Qatar (1550ce-1670ce), Eritrea (1557ce-1882ce), Cyprus (1570ce-1914ce), Tunisia (1574ce-1881ce), Iran (1585ce-1603ce), United Arab Emirates (1683ce-1922ce), Somalia (1683ce-1912ce), Sudan (1821ce-1885ce)
Oyo Empire 1300ce 1800ce Benin, Togo, Nigeria (1300ce-1800ce)
Serbian Empire 1346ce 1371ce Albania, Croatia, Montenegro, Greece, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, North Macedonia (1346ce-1371ce)
Bruneian Empire 1368ce 1888ce Brunei (1368ce-1888ce), Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia (1550ce-1888ce)
Ming Dynasty 1368ce 1644ce Laos, China, Vietnam (1368ce-1644ce), North Korea, Russia (1500ce-1644ce)
Northern Yuan Dynasty 1368ce 1635ce Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, China (1368ce-1635ce)
Timurid Empire 1370ce 1507ce Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan (1370ce-1507ce), Iran (1379ce-1405ce), India, Kuwait, Georgia, Syria, Kazakhstan, China, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Russia, Armenia, Pakistan (1406ce-1507ce)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1385ce 1795ce Poland (1385ce-1795ce), Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine (1569ce-1795ce)
Borno Empire 1387ce 1893ce Nigeria (1387ce-1893ce), Niger, Cameroon (1500ce-1893ce), Chad (1580ce-1893ce)
Joseon Empire 1392ce 1910ce South Korea, North Korea (1392ce-1910ce)
Portuguese Empire 1415ce 2002ce Portugal (1415ce-2002ce), Morocco (1415ce-1769ce), Ghana (1482ce-1642ce), Cape Verde (1495ce-1975ce), Mozambique (1498ce-1975ce), Brazil (1500ce-1822ce), India (1503ce-1962ce), Macau (1557ce-1999ce), Maldives (1558ce-1573ce), Angola (1575ce-1975ce), Sri Lanka (1597ce-1658ce)
Later Lê dynasty 1428ce 1788ce Vietnam, Laos (1428ce-1788ce)
Inca Empire Tawantinsuyo 1438ce 1533ce Peru (1438ce-1533ce), Ecuador (1471ce-1533ce), Bolivia, Argentina, Chile (1494ce-1533ce), Colombia (1525ce-1533ce)
Spanish Empire 1462ce 1975ce Spain (1462ce-1975ce), Gibraltar (1462ce-1704ce), Cuba (1492ce-1899ce), Dominican Republic (1492ce-1865ce), Haiti (1492ce-1625ce), Bahamas (1492ce-1565ce), Puerto Rico (1493ce-1897ce), Jamaica (1494ce-1670ce), Venezuela (1498ce-1830ce), Aruba (1499ce-1636ce), Uruguay (1500ce-1817ce), Honduras (1502ce-1824ce), Costa Rica, Panama (1502ce-1821ce), Colombia (1509ce-1819ce), Algeria (1510ce-1541ce), United States (1511ce-1898ce), Mexico (1518ce-1823ce), Philippines (1521ce-1946ce), Trinidad and Tobago (1521ce-1731ce), Nicaragua (1522ce-1821ce), Guatemala, El Salvador (1524ce-1821ce), Belize (1524ce-1798ce), Peru (1532ce-1821ce), Bolivia (1532ce-1809ce), Ecuador (1534ce-1835ce), Paraguay (1534ce-1811ce), Argentina (1536ce-1832ce), Chile (1541ce-1824ce), Guam (1565ce-1817ce), Angola (1580ce-1640ce), Suriname (1593ce-1629ce), Palau (1710ce-1899ce), Equatorial Guinea (1778ce-1968ce), Western Sahara (1884ce-1975ce), Morocco (1912ce-1956ce)
Songhai Empire 1464ce 1591ce Mauritania, Benin, Mali, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, Guinea, Niger, Burkina Faso (1464ce-1591ce)
Shibanid Empire 1500ce 1598ce Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan (1500ce-1598ce)
Safavid Dynasty 1501ce 1736ce Russia, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kuwait, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Iran (1501ce-1736ce)
Mughal Empire 1504ce 1858ce Afghanistan (1504ce-1747ce), India (1526ce-1858ce), Pakistan (1526ce-1750ce), Bangladesh (1576ce-1765ce)
Aceh Sultanate 1528ce 1903ce Indonesia, Brunei (1528ce-1903ce)
Johor-Riau Empire 1528ce 1855ce Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia (1528ce-1855ce)
French colonial empires 1534ce 2007ce France (1534ce-2007ce), Canada (1534ce-1763ce), Saint Kitts and Nevis (1624ce-1783ce), Haiti (1627ce-1804ce), United States (1660ce-1803ce), Senegal (1677ce-1960ce), India (1692ce-1954ce), Mauritius (1721ce-1810ce), Seychelles (1756ce-1810ce), Dominican Republic (1795ce-1809ce), Malta (1798ce-1798ce), Algeria (1830ce-1962ce), Gabon (1839ce-1960ce), Cote d'Ivoire (1843ce-1960ce), China (1849ce-1949ce), New Caledonia (1853ce-1999ce), Vietnam (1858ce-1954ce), Djibouti (1862ce-1977ce), Cambodia (1863ce-1953ce), Comoros (1866ce-1975ce), Congo (1875ce-1960ce), Mali (1880ce-1960ce), Tunisia (1881ce-1957ce), Vanuatu (1887ce-1980ce), Guinea, Central African Republic (1891ce-1958ce), Laos (1893ce-1953ce), Madagascar, Burkina Faso (1896ce-1960ce), Chad (1900ce-1960ce), Mauritania (1902ce-1960ce), Benin (1904ce-1958ce), Morocco (1912ce-1956ce), Cameroon (1914ce-1960ce), Togo (1916ce-1960ce), Syria (1920ce-1946ce), Lebanon (1920ce-1943ce), Niger (1922ce-1958ce), Libya (1943ce-1951ce)
Kaabu Empire 1537ce 1867ce Senegal, Guinea-Bissau (1537ce-1867ce)
Maravi Empire 1575ce 1750ce Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia (1575ce-1750ce)
British Empire 1583ce 2002ce United Kingdom (1583ce-1997ce), United States (1607ce-1776ce), Bermuda (1612ce-1997ce), Saint Kitts and Nevis (1623ce-1983ce), Barbados (1624ce-1966ce), Haiti (1631ce-1659ce), Antigua and Barbuda (1632ce-1981ce), Jamaica (1655ce-1962ce), Gambia (1664ce-1965ce), Belize (1665ce-1981ce), India (1665ce-1947ce), Bahamas (1666ce-1973ce), Canada (1668ce-1867ce), Cayman Islands (1670ce-2002ce), Gibraltar (1704ce-2002ce), Pakistan (1748ce-1947ce), Grenada (1762ce-1974ce), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1763ce-1979ce), Bangladesh (1765ce-1971ce), Falkland Islands (1766ce-2002ce), Samoa (1768ce-1962ce), Turkmenistan (1783ce-1997ce), Sierra Leone (1787ce-1961ce), Australia (1788ce-1901ce), Seychelles (1794ce-1976ce), Sri Lanka (1795ce-1948ce), Maldives (1796ce-1965ce), Namibia (1797ce-1990ce), South Africa (1797ce-1910ce), Oman (1798ce-1971ce), Malta (1800ce-1964ce), Ireland (1801ce-1919ce), Trinidad and Tobago (1802ce-1962ce), Argentina (1806ce-1825ce), Mauritius (1810ce-1968ce), Guyana, French Guiana (1814ce-1966ce), Malaysia (1819ce-1957ce), Ghana (1821ce-1957ce), Singapore (1824ce-1963ce), Myanmar (1824ce-1948ce), Yemen (1839ce-1967ce), Afghanistan (1839ce-1919ce), New Zealand (1840ce-1907ce), Hong Kong (1841ce-1997ce), Nigeria (1861ce-1960ce), Bhutan (1865ce-1935ce), Lesotho (1868ce-1966ce), Fiji (1874ce-1970ce), Bahrain (1880ce-1971ce), Papua New Guinea (1884ce-1906ce), Botswana (1885ce-1966ce), Somalia (1887ce-1960ce), Brunei (1888ce-1984ce), Kenya (1888ce-1963ce), Malawi (1889ce-1964ce), Uganda (1890ce-1962ce), United Arab Emirates (1892ce-1971ce), Solomon Islands (1893ce-1978ce), Kuwait (1899ce-1961ce), South Sudan, Sudan (1899ce-1956ce), Tonga (1900ce-1970ce), Swaziland (1903ce-1968ce), Nauru (1914ce-1968ce), Cameroon (1914ce-1961ce), Cyprus (1914ce-1960ce), Egypt (1914ce-1922ce), Kiribati (1916ce-1979ce), Qatar (1916ce-1971ce), Togo (1916ce-1956ce), Tanzania (1919ce-1961ce), Israel (1920ce-1948ce), Iraq (1920ce-1932ce), Zimbabwe (1923ce-1980ce), Zambia (1924ce-1964ce), Eritrea (1941ce-1993ce)
Dutch Empire 1602ce 1975ce Netherlands (1598ce-1975ce), Ghana (1598ce-1872ce), Indonesia (1602ce-1962ce), United States (1614ce-1664ce), Guyana (1630ce-1815ce), Brazil (1630ce-1654ce), Aruba (1636ce-1973ce), Mauritius (1638ce-1710ce), Sri Lanka (1639ce-1795ce), Singapore (1641ce-1825ce), Angola (1641ce-1648ce), Maldives (1645ce-1796ce), Malaysia (1650ce-1824ce), South Africa (1652ce-1814ce), India (1654ce-1825ce), Suriname (1667ce-1975ce)
Swedish Empire 1611ce 1721ce Estonia, Sweden, Russia, Finland (1611ce-1721ce), Latvia (1629ce-1721ce), Denmark (1645ce-1721ce), Togo, Ghana, Germany, United Kingdom, Poland, United States (1648ce-1721ce), Norway (1658ce-1719ce)
Qing Dynasty 1637ce 1912ce South Korea (1637ce-1895ce), Pakistan, China, Mongolia, Bhutan, Tajikistan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Afghanistan, Russia, Kazakhstan, North Korea, India (1644ce-1912ce)
Omani Empire 1650ce 1970ce Oman (1650ce-1970ce), Pakistan (1650ce-1958ce), Somalia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania (1650ce-1856ce), United Arab Emirates, Yemen (1650ce-1820ce)
Maratha Empire 1674ce 1818ce Pakistan, India (1674ce-1818ce)
Hotaki Dynasty 1709ce 1738ce Tajikistan, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan (1709ce-1738ce)
Kong Empire 1710ce 1898ce Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire (1710ce-1898ce)
Russian Empire Romanov 1721ce 1917ce China, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Sweden, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Latvia, Turkey, Finland, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan (1721ce-1917ce), Lithuania (1772ce-1917ce), Romania, Poland (1801ce-1917ce), Georgia (1812ce-1917ce), Iran (1826ce-1917ce), Kyrgyz Republic (1864ce-1917ce)
Afsharid Dynasty 1736ce 1796ce Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran, Armenia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait (1736ce-1796ce), India (1738ce-1796ce), Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (1740ce-1796ce), Azerbaijan, Turkey, Turkmenistan (1741ce-1796ce), Georgia, Oman (1742ce-1796ce), Russia (1743ce-1796ce)
Durrani Empire 1747ce 1818ce Afghanistan (1747ce-1818ce), Iran (1747ce-1800ce), Pakistan (1749ce-1818ce), India (1757ce-1800ce)
Zand Dynasty 1750ce 1794ce Azerbaijan, Russia, Armenia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran (1750ce-1794ce)
Futa Toro 1776ce 1871ce Mauritania, Senegal (1776ce-1871ce)
Kingdom of Siam 1782ce 1932ce Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar (1782ce-1932ce)
Qajar Dynasty 1789ce 1925ce Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Iran (1789ce-1925ce), Georgia, Armenia (1794ce-1828ce), Russia, Azerbaijan (1794ce-1813ce)
Sikh Empire 1799ce 1849ce China, Pakistan, India (1799ce-1849ce)
Lozi Empire 1800ce 1890ce Zambia, Botswana, Angola, Namibia (1800ce-1890ce)
Nguyen Dynasty 1802ce 1945ce Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, China (1802ce-1945ce)
Fulani Empire (Sokoto) 1804ce 1903ce Niger, Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso (1804ce-1903ce)
Austrian Empire 1804ce 1867ce Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Austria, Slovak Republic, Romania, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Italy (1804ce-1867ce), Slovenia (1813ce-1867ce), Croatia (1814ce-1867ce), Albania (1816ce-1818ce)
First Mexican Empire 1821ce 1823ce Nicaragua, Belize, Mexico, Honduras, United States, El Salvador (1821ce-1823ce), Costa Rica, Guatemala (1822ce-1823ce)
Empire of Brazil 1822ce 1889ce Uruguay, Brazil (1822ce-1889ce)
Belgian Colonial Empire 1843ce 1962ce Belgium (1843ce-1960ce), Guatemala (1843ce-1854ce), Democratic Republic of the Congo (1885ce-1960ce), China (1900ce-1931ce), Tanzania (1916ce-1919ce), Italy (1919ce-1920ce), Burundi, Rwanda (1922ce-1962ce)
AustroHungarian Empire 1867ce 1918ce Italy, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Austria, Poland, France, Montenegro, Ukraine, Liechtenstein, Germany, Serbia, Slovenia (1867ce-1918ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908ce-1918ce)
Empire of Japan 1868ce 1947ce Japan (1868ce-1947ce), China, South Korea, Russia, North Korea (1905ce-1945ce), Laos, Vietnam (1940ce-1945ce), Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Marshall Islands, Solomon Islands, Palau, Cambodia, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia, Myanmar (1942ce-1945ce)
Italian Colonial Empire 1869ce 1947ce Italy (1869ce-1943ce), Eritrea (1885ce-1941ce), Somalia (1889ce-1941ce), Libya, Greece (1912ce-1947ce), Ethiopia (1936ce-1941ce), Albania (1939ce-1947ce)
German Empire 1871ce 1918ce Belgium, Russia, France, Poland, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Czech Republic, Lithuania (1871ce-1918ce), Samoa, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Namibia, Palau, Papua New Guinea (1884ce-1918ce), Cameroon (1884ce-1916ce), Solomon Islands (1885ce-1899ce), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania (1890ce-1918ce), Togo (1905ce-1914ce)
Korean Empire 1897ce 1910ce South Korea, North Korea (1897ce-1910ce)
Third Reich 1933ce 1945ce Germany (1933ce-1945ce), Austria, Slovenia, Czech Republic (1938ce-1945ce), Lithuania, Poland (1939ce-1945ce), Belgium, Romania, Hungary, France, Netherlands (1940ce-1945ce), Serbia, Russia, Montenegro, Greece (1941ce-1945ce)

Data notes.