Imperial Roots of Global Trade, Journal of Economic Growth, 2020, Vol.:15(1), pp. 87-145.

Günes Gokmen, Wessel N. Vermeulen, Pierre-Louis Vézina



Empire Name Start End Countries
Elam 2500bce 539bce Iraq, Iran (2500bce-539bce)
Akkadian Empire 2350bce 2150bce Iraq (2350bce-2150bce), Saudi Arabia, Kuwait (2271bce-2150bce), Turkey, Syria, Iran, Jordan (2248bce-2150bce)
Neo-Sumerian (Ur III) Empire 2112bce 2004bce Lebanon, Syria, Iran, Iraq (2112bce-2004bce)
Hittite Empire 1600bce 1178bce Syria, Lebanon, Turkey (1600bce-1178bce)
Egyptian Empire 1552bce 1069bce Libya, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Sudan, Israel, Palestine, Egypt (1552bce-1069bce)
Mittani Empire 1475bce 1275bce Syria, Iraq, Turkey (1475bce-1275bce)
Middle Assyrian Empire 1350bce 1200bce Iraq, Turkey, Syria (1350bce-1200bce)
NeoAssyrian Empire 911bce 609bce Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran (911bce-609bce), Lebanon (737bce-609bce), Armenia, Israel (712bce-609bce), Palestine, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Cyprus, Saudi Arabia (671bce-609bce)
Kingdom of Kush 890bce 350bce Egypt, Sudan (890bce-350bce)
Urartu Kingdom 860bce 590bce Armenia, Iran, Turkey (860bce-590bce)
Macedonian Empire 808bce 148bce Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia (808bce-148bce), Albania (336bce-148bce), Moldova, Romania, Turkey (334bce-200bce), Cyprus (333bce-316bce), Syria, Kuwait, Egypt, Israel, Iraq (331bce-200bce), Lebanon (331bce-301bce), Iran (331bce-312bce), Afghanistan, Turkmenistan (330bce-200bce), Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan (327bce-200bce), India (327bce-323bce)
Roman Empire 800bce 395ce Italy (800bce-395ce), Monaco (237bce-395ce), Malta (218bce-395ce), Spain (209bce-395ce), Portugal (206bce-395ce), Albania (146bce-395ce), Turkey, Greece, Tunisia, San Marino (133bce-395ce), Lebanon, North Macedonia (64bce-395ce), Israel (63bce-395ce), France, Cyprus, Netherlands, Switzerland, Morocco, Gibraltar, Luxembourg, Romania, Jordan, Moldova, Germany, Libya (44bce-395ce), Egypt (30bce-395ce), Syria, Palestine, Croatia (27bce-395ce), Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Andorra (14bce-395ce), Hungary (9bce-395ce), Algeria, Bulgaria, Belgium (14ce-395ce), Liechtenstein (15ce-395ce), Azerbaijan, Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Ukraine, United Kingdom (100ce-395ce), Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran (115ce-395ce)
Median Empire 678bce 550bce Iran, Armenia, Turkey, Iraq (678bce-550bce), Azerbaijan (648bce-550bce)
NeoBabylonian Empire 626bce 539bce Iraq (626bce-539bce), Iran, Kuwait (614bce-539bce), Turkey, Syria, Israel (612bce-539bce), Lebanon (605bce-539bce), Palestine, Egypt, Jordan, Cyprus, Saudi Arabia (599bce-539bce)
Carthaginian Empire 550bce 201bce Tunisia (650bce-146bce), Gibraltar, Libya, Algeria (650bce-201bce), Spain (650bce-206bce), France, Malta, Italy (650bce-218bce)
Pandyan Empire 550bce 1550ce Sri Lanka, India (550bce-1550ce)
Achaemenid Empire 550bce 330bce Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey (550bce-331bce), Cyprus (545bce-333bce), Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Pakistan, Syria (539bce-331bce), Israel (539bce-332bce), Oman (530bce-330bce), Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Palestine, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kuwait, Kazakhstan (530bce-331bce), Libya (525bce-331bce), Egypt (525bce-404bce), India (518bce-330bce), Ukraine, Russia, Moldova (513bce-331bce), North Macedonia (512bce-330bce), Bulgaria, Greece (512bce-479bce), Romania (410bce-331bce)
Delian League 478bce 404bce Turkey, Greece (478bce-404bce)
Nanda Empire 344bce 324bce Nepal, India, Bangladesh (344bce-324bce)
Armenian Empire 331bce 428ce Armenia (331bce-428ce), Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Iran (300bce-428ce), Palestine, Lebanon, Israel (95bce-428ce)
Mauryan Empire 326bce 184bce India, Nepal (326bce-184bce), Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran (305bce-184bce)
Seleucid Empire 312bce 64bce Syria, Turkey (312bce-64bce), Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Palestine (312bce-141bce), Greece (312bce-190bce), Iran (312bce-247bce), Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (312bce-256bce), Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia (312bce-275bce), Pakistan (307bce-141bce), India (307bce-256bce), Israel (301bce-110bce), Jordan (301bce-141bce), Lebanon (198bce-64bce), Cyprus (170bce-168bce)
Ptolemaic Empire 305bce 30bce Libya, Egypt (305bce-30bce), Israel (301bce-30bce), Lebanon (301bce-198bce), Cyprus (294bce-58bce), Palestine, Greece, Turkey, Jordan, Syria (275bce-133bce)
Pontic Empire 302bce 62ce Turkey (302bce-62ce), Russia, Romania, Greece, Ukraine, Georgia, Bulgaria (129bce-62ce)
Parthian Empire 247bce 224ce Iran (247bce-224ce), Turkmenistan (235bce-224ce), Qatar, Georgia, Turkey, Pakistan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Azerbaijan, Syria, Saudi Arabia (141bce-224ce), Israel (40bce-37bce), Armenia, Afghanistan (63ce-224ce), Iraq (141ce-224ce)
Hsuing-nu Empire 209bce 51bce China, Tajikistan, Mongolia, Russia (209bce-51bce)
Han Dynasty 206bce 220ce China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, South Korea (206bce-220ce)
Shunga Empire 185bce 75bce Bangladesh, Nepal, India (185bce-75bce)
Nabataean Kingdom 168bce 106ce Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Jordan (168bce-106ce)
Silla Kingdom 57bce 935ce North Korea, South Korea (57bce-935ce)
Goguryeo 37bce 668ce Russia, North Korea, China (37bce-668ce), South Korea (391ce-668ce)
Kingdom of Funan 1ce 500ce Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam (1ce-500ce)
Kushan Empire 30ce 375ce Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, China, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (30ce-375ce), India (130ce-375ce)
Aksumite Empire 100ce 960ce Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti (100ce-960ce), Yemen (100ce-480ce), Somalia (230ce-960ce)
Eastern Wu 220ce 280ce Vietnam, China (220ce-280ce)
Wei Empire 220ce 265ce North Korea, China (220ce-265ce)
Qin Dynasty 221ce 206ce Vietnam, China (221bce-206bce)
Sassanid Dynasty 224ce 651ce Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan (224ce-651ce), Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Iraq (224ce-643ce), Turkey, Syria (224ce-639ce), Kazakhstan, India (480ce-651ce), Russia (480ce-643ce), Kuwait (480ce-639ce), Saudi Arabia, Oman, Bahrain (531ce-639ce), Tajikistan (570ce-651ce), Yemen (570ce-628ce), Israel (614ce-628ce), Qatar (621ce-639ce), Jordan, Libya, Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine (621ce-628ce)
Gallic Empire 260ce 274ce Portugal, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, France, Spain (260ce-274ce)
Jin Dynasty 265--420 265ce 420ce Vietnam, Mongolia, China (265ce-420ce)
Palmyrene Empire 270ce 273ce Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Israel (270ce-273ce)
Gupta Empire 319ce 550ce India, Nepal, Bangladesh (319ce-550ce), Pakistan (375ce-550ce)
Rouran Khaganate 330ce 552ce Mongolia, Kazakhstan, China, Russia (330ce-552ce)
Hephthalite Empire 350ce 670ce Afghanistan (350ce-670ce), Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (408ce-670ce), China (460ce-670ce), India (467ce-670ce)
Hunnic Empire 370ce 469ce Romania, Moldova (370ce-550ce), Russia, Kazakhstan (370ce-469ce), Hungary (375ce-454ce), Ukraine (376ce-550ce), Belarus (376ce-469ce), Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic (408ce-469ce), Austria (408ce-454ce), Poland (420ce-469ce), Germany (420ce-454ce)
Byzantine Empire 395ce 1453ce Turkey (395ce-1453ce), Greece (395ce-1350ce), Albania (395ce-1203ce), Cyprus (395ce-1191ce), Bulgaria (395ce-1185ce), North Macedonia (395ce-650ce), Egypt (395ce-641ce), Israel (395ce-637ce), Syria, Libya, Lebanon (476ce-650ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina (535ce-1183ce), Malta (535ce-870ce), Croatia (535ce-810ce), Slovenia (540ce-1204ce), Italy (540ce-1018ce), Tunisia, Algeria (540ce-717ce), Morocco, France, Portugal (540ce-650ce), Spain (552ce-624ce), Monaco (553ce-568ce), Armenia (635ce-697ce)
Western Roman Empire 395ce 476ce Hungary, Portugal, Spain, Luxembourg, Belgium, Croatia, Netherlands, Algeria, Liechtenstein, Tunisia, Austria, Gibraltar, Malta, Germany, Libya, Slovenia, Andorra, United Kingdom, Monaco, Switzerland, Italy, San Marino, France, Morocco, Bosnia and Herzegovina (395ce-476ce)
Visigothic Kingdom 410ce 711ce France, Portugal, Spain (410ce-711ce)
Vandal Kingdom 425ce 533ce Libya, Algeria, Tunisia (425ce-533ce), France, Italy (455ce-533ce)
Frankish Empire 481ce 843ce Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, France (481ce-843ce), Switzerland (531ce-843ce), Liechtenstein (537ce-843ce), Monaco (760ce-843ce), Austria, Spain, Germany, Italy (768ce-843ce), Andorra (803ce-843ce)
Ghana Empire 500ce 1150ce Mauritania, Mali (500ce-1150ce)
Liang Dynasty 502ce 557ce China, Vietnam (502ce-557ce)
Göktürk Khaganate 552ce 744ce Russia, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, China, Tajikistan, Afghanistan (552ce-744ce)
Avar Khaganate 568ce 796ce Hungary, Slovenia, Ukraine, Slovak Republic, Romania, Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Poland (568ce-796ce)
Sui Dynasty 581ce 618ce Vietnam, China (581ce-618ce)
Tang Dynasty 618ce 907ce North Korea, China, Vietnam, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Hong Kong (618ce-907ce)
Tibetan Empire 618ce 842ce Tajikistan, China, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, India (618ce-842ce)
Rashidun Caliphate 632ce 661ce Saudi Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait (632ce-661ce), Jordan, Iraq (634ce-661ce), Syria, Turkey (639ce-661ce), Armenia, Iran (643ce-661ce), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Italy, Russia, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Tajikistan, Israel, Qatar, Uzbekistan, Cyprus, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Palestine, Sudan, Pakistan, Tunisia, Azerbaijan (650ce-661ce)
Srivijaya Empire 650ce 1377ce Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand (650ce-1377ce)
Khazar Khaganate 650ce 969ce Ukraine, Russia (650ce-969ce), Kazakhstan (850ce-969ce)
Umayyad Caliphate 661ce 750ce Jordan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Bahrain, Gibraltar, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Yemen, Eritrea, Israel, Oman, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon, Russia, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Iraq, Niger, Chad, Armenia, Kuwait, Qatar, Turkey, Iran, Mauritania, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Cyprus, Greece, Somalia, Western Sahara (661ce-750ce), Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco (683ce-750ce), France, Spain, Portugal, Andorra (711ce-750ce), Tajikistan, Kazakhstan (713ce-750ce)
First Bulgarian Empire 681ce 1018ce Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine (681ce-1018ce), Hungary, Croatia (836ce-1018ce), Greece, North Macedonia (889ce-1018ce)
Republic of Venice 697ce 1797ce Slovenia, Croatia, Italy (697ce-1797ce), Montenegro (1420ce-1797ce), Greece, Albania (1489ce-1797ce), Cyprus (1489ce-1570ce)
Balhae 698ce 926ce Russia, North Korea, China (698ce-926ce)
Kanem Empire 700ce 1387ce Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria, Niger, Libya (700ce-1387ce)
Vikings 700ce 1263ce Denmark, Norway, Sweden (700ce-1066ce), Iceland (825ce-1100ce), Ireland (840ce-1171ce), Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Germany, Moldova, Latvia (850ce-1000ce), Belgium, Russia (859ce-1000ce), United Kingdom (865ce-1263ce), Ukraine (880ce-1000ce), France (911ce-1100ce)
Uyghur Khaganate 744ce 840ce Tajikistan, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, China (744ce-840ce)
Abbasid Empire 750ce 1258ce Tajikistan, Libya, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Russia, Kazakhstan, Bahrain, Lebanon, Turkmenistan, Iran, Italy, Qatar, Tunisia, Afghanistan, Kuwait, Turkey, Georgia, Pakistan, Algeria, Armenia, Jordan, Syria, Eritrea, Oman, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Saudi Arabia (750ce-1258ce), Egypt (750ce-909ce)
Pala Empire 750ce 1150ce India, Bangladesh (750ce-1150ce)
Holy Roman Empire 800ce 1806ce Czech Republic, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, Luxembourg, Germany, Slovenia, Liechtenstein (800ce-1806ce), Switzerland (800ce-1649ce), Croatia (800ce-963ce), Italy (962ce-1806ce), Monaco (1032ce-1220ce), France (1033ce-1806ce), Cyprus (1197ce-1247ce), Poland (1500ce-1806ce)
Khmer Empire 802ce 1431ce Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand (802ce-1431ce)
Samanid Dynasty 819ce 999ce Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran (819ce-999ce)
Tahirid Dynasty 821ce 873ce Tajikistan, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, India (821ce-873ce)
Great Moravian Empire 833ce 906ce Czech Republic, Slovak Republic (833ce-906ce), Hungary, Poland (877ce-894ce)
Chola Dynasty 850ce 1279ce India (850ce-1279ce), Thailand, Indonesia (925ce-1279ce), Sri Lanka (996ce-1279ce), Maldives (1014ce-1279ce), Bangladesh (1016ce-1279ce), Singapore, Malaysia (1023ce-1279ce)
Saffarid Dynasty 861ce 1003ce Afghanistan, Iraq, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, India, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan (861ce-1003ce)
Kievan Rus 882ce 1240ce Belarus, Ukraine, Russia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia (882ce-1240ce)
Liao Dynasty 907ce 1125ce Kazakhstan, China, Russia, North Korea, Mongolia (907ce-1125ce)
Fatimid Caliphate 909ce 1171ce Algeria, Libya, Tunisia (909ce-1100ce), Morocco (920ce-987ce), Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Malta, Israel, Egypt (969ce-1171ce), Lebanon, Syria, Italy (969ce-1100ce)
Goryeo 918ce 1392ce North Korea, South Korea (918ce-1392ce)
Caliphate of Córdoba 929ce 1031ce Morocco, Gibraltar, Spain, Andorra, Portugal (929ce-1031ce)
Buyid Dynasty 945ce 1055ce Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Turkey (945ce-1055ce), Oman (977ce-1055ce)
Tui Tonga Empire 950ce 1865ce Solomon Islands, Nauru, Samoa, Niue, Tuvalu, Fiji, Tonga, Cook Islands (950ce-1865ce)
KaraKhanid Khanate 955ce 1212ce Turkmenistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, China, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan (955ce-1212ce)
Song Dynasty 960ce 1279ce Hong Kong, China (960ce-1279ce)
Ghaznavid Dynasty 977ce 1186ce Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, India (977ce-1186ce)
Scandinavian Empire 1016ce 1035ce Sweden, Norway, Denmark, United Kingdom (1016ce-1035ce)
Great Seljuq Empire 1037ce 1194ce Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Lebanon, Yemen, Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Kuwait, Uzbekistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Georgia, Russia, Jordan, Turkmenistan, Egypt, Oman, Israel (1037ce-1194ce)
Western Xia Dynasty 1038ce 1227ce China, Mongolia (1038ce-1227ce)
Almoravid Dynasty 1040ce 1147ce Gibraltar, Portugal, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Algeria (1040ce-1147ce), Spain, Morocco (1056ce-1147ce)
Uyunid dynasty 1076ce 1253ce Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Bahrain (1076ce-1253ce)
Khwarezmid Dynasty 1077ce 1231ce Pakistan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iran, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan (1077ce-1231ce)
Mossi Empire 1100ce 1896ce Ghana, Burkina Faso (1100ce-1896ce)
Kara-Khitan Khanate 1124ce 1218ce Uzbekistan, Russia, Tajikistan, China, Mongolia, Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan (1124ce-1218ce)
Almohad Dynasty 1130ce 1269ce Morocco, Algeria (1130ce-1269ce), Spain, Gibraltar (1145ce-1269ce), Portugal (1148ce-1269ce), Tunisia, Western Sahara, Libya (1152ce-1269ce)
Ethiopian Empire 1137ce 1974ce Ethiopia, Eritrea (1137ce-1974ce)
Ghurid Dynasty 1150ce 1215ce Uzbekistan, Bangladesh, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, India (1150ce-1215ce)
Plantagenet Empire 1154ce 1204ce United Kingdom, France (1154ce-1204ce), Ireland (1166ce-1204ce)
Ayyubid Dynasty 1171ce 1260ce Jordan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Palestine, Iraq, Tunisia, Libya, Syria, Lebanon, Sudan (1171ce-1260ce), Egypt (1171ce-1250ce), Turkey (1179ce-1260ce)
Second Bulgarian Empire 1185ce 1396ce Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine (1185ce-1396ce), North Macedonia, Greece, Turkey (1230ce-1396ce), Albania (1230ce-1240ce)
Empire of Trebizond 1204ce 1461ce Turkey, Georgia, Ukraine (1204ce-1461ce)
Latin Empire 1204ce 1261ce Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece (1204ce-1261ce)
Delhi Sultanate 1206ce 1526ce Nepal, India (1206ce-1526ce), Bangladesh (1206ce-1316ce)
Mongol Empire 1206ce 1368ce Russia, Mongolia, China (1206ce-1294ce), Kazakhstan, North Korea, Tajikistan (1219ce-1294ce), Uzbekistan (1220ce-1368ce), Turkmenistan (1223ce-1294ce), Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, India (1227ce-1294ce), Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan (1237ce-1294ce), Croatia (1241ce-1368ce), Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Poland, Lithuania, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic (1258ce-1368ce), Syria, Iraq, Bangladesh (1259ce-1294ce), South Korea (1259ce-1259ce), Romania, Myanmar, Thailand, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Turkey, Laos, Vietnam (1279ce-1294ce)
Danish Colonial Empire 1219ce 1953ce Denmark (1219ce-1953ce), Estonia (1219ce-1227ce), Iceland (1380ce-1944ce), Norway (1380ce-1814ce), Sweden (1398ce-1523ce), India (1620ce-1825ce), Ghana (1658ce-1850ce), United States (1754ce-1917ce)
Mali Empire 1235ce 1650ce Mauritania, Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea (1235ce-1650ce), Senegal (1235ce-1600ce), Niger (1235ce-1500ce)
Ajuran Sultanate 1250ce 1650ce Ethiopia, Somalia (1250ce-1650ce)
Mamluk Sultanate 1250ce 1517ce Syria, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Turkey, Jordan (1250ce-1517ce), Lebanon (1287ce-1517ce)
Angevin Empire 1266ce 1435ce Italy, France (1266ce-1435ce), Albania (1277ce-1368ce), Greece (1350ce-1435ce)
Yuan Dynasty 1271ce 1368ce Russia, South Korea, China, Mongolia (1271ce-1368ce), Myanmar (1277ce-1368ce), Laos, Bhutan (1280ce-1368ce), North Korea (1295ce-1368ce)
Ifat Sultanate 1285ce 1415ce Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia (1285ce-1415ce)
Khilji Dynasty 1290ce 1320ce Pakistan, India, Afghanistan (1290ce-1320ce)
Majapahit Empire 1293ce 1527ce Indonesia, Malaysia (1293ce-1527ce)
Golden Horde 1294ce 1502ce Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Russia, Belarus, Romania, Moldova (1295ce-1502ce), Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Bulgaria, Uzbekistan (1295ce-1456ce)
Chagatai Khanate 1295ce 1363ce Kazakhstan (1227ce-1363ce), Uzbekistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, India, Pakistan, China, Mongolia, Afghanistan (1295ce-1363ce)
Ilkhanate 1295ce 1335ce Georgia, Syria, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Armenia, Turkey, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Tajikistan (1295ce-1335ce)
Ottoman Empire 1299ce 1922ce Turkey (1299ce-1922ce), Greece (1389ce-1922ce), Bulgaria (1389ce-1913ce), North Macedonia (1391ce-1922ce), Albania (1417ce-1912ce), Serbia (1451ce-1922ce), Montenegro (1477ce-1799ce), Georgia, Ukraine (1481ce-1922ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1481ce-1908ce), Russia (1481ce-1815ce), Croatia (1481ce-1700ce), Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria (1516ce-1922ce), Azerbaijan, Jordan (1516ce-1920ce), Armenia (1517ce-1918ce), Egypt (1517ce-1914ce), Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Bahrain, Morocco (1520ce-1922ce), Libya (1521ce-1912ce), Iraq (1534ce-1919ce), Kuwait (1534ce-1914ce), Algeria (1536ce-1900ce), Yemen (1538ce-1839ce), Oman (1539ce-1829ce), Romania (1541ce-1877ce), Moldova (1541ce-1812ce), Hungary (1541ce-1699ce), Qatar (1550ce-1670ce), Eritrea (1557ce-1882ce), Cyprus (1570ce-1914ce), Tunisia (1574ce-1881ce), Iran (1585ce-1603ce), United Arab Emirates (1683ce-1922ce), Somalia (1683ce-1912ce), Sudan (1821ce-1885ce)
Oyo Empire 1300ce 1800ce Togo, Nigeria, Benin (1300ce-1800ce)
Serbian Empire 1346ce 1371ce Serbia, Albania, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Bulgaria (1346ce-1371ce)
Bruneian Empire 1368ce 1888ce Brunei (1368ce-1888ce), Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia (1550ce-1888ce)
Ming Dynasty 1368ce 1644ce Laos, China, Vietnam (1368ce-1644ce), Russia, North Korea (1500ce-1644ce)
Northern Yuan Dynasty 1368ce 1635ce Kazakhstan, China, Russia, Mongolia (1368ce-1635ce)
Timurid Empire 1370ce 1507ce Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan (1370ce-1507ce), Iran (1379ce-1405ce), Syria, Kazakhstan, China, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Russia, Armenia, Pakistan, India, Kuwait, Georgia (1406ce-1507ce)
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1385ce 1795ce Poland (1385ce-1795ce), Lithuania, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus (1569ce-1795ce)
Borno Empire 1387ce 1893ce Nigeria (1387ce-1893ce), Niger, Cameroon (1500ce-1893ce), Chad (1580ce-1893ce)
Joseon Empire 1392ce 1910ce South Korea, North Korea (1392ce-1910ce)
Portuguese Empire 1415ce 2002ce Portugal (1415ce-2002ce), Morocco (1415ce-1769ce), Ghana (1482ce-1642ce), Cape Verde (1495ce-1975ce), Mozambique (1498ce-1975ce), Brazil (1500ce-1822ce), India (1503ce-1962ce), Macau (1557ce-1999ce), Maldives (1558ce-1573ce), Angola (1575ce-1975ce), Sri Lanka (1597ce-1658ce)
Later Lê dynasty 1428ce 1788ce Vietnam, Laos (1428ce-1788ce)
Inca Empire Tawantinsuyo 1438ce 1533ce Peru (1438ce-1533ce), Ecuador (1471ce-1533ce), Bolivia, Argentina, Chile (1494ce-1533ce), Colombia (1525ce-1533ce)
Spanish Empire 1462ce 1975ce Spain (1462ce-1975ce), Gibraltar (1462ce-1704ce), Cuba (1492ce-1899ce), Dominican Republic (1492ce-1865ce), Haiti (1492ce-1625ce), Bahamas (1492ce-1565ce), Puerto Rico (1493ce-1897ce), Jamaica (1494ce-1670ce), Venezuela (1498ce-1830ce), Aruba (1499ce-1636ce), Uruguay (1500ce-1817ce), Honduras (1502ce-1824ce), Panama, Costa Rica (1502ce-1821ce), Colombia (1509ce-1819ce), Algeria (1510ce-1541ce), United States (1511ce-1898ce), Mexico (1518ce-1823ce), Philippines (1521ce-1946ce), Trinidad and Tobago (1521ce-1731ce), Nicaragua (1522ce-1821ce), Guatemala, El Salvador (1524ce-1821ce), Belize (1524ce-1798ce), Peru (1532ce-1821ce), Bolivia (1532ce-1809ce), Ecuador (1534ce-1835ce), Paraguay (1534ce-1811ce), Argentina (1536ce-1832ce), Chile (1541ce-1824ce), Guam (1565ce-1817ce), Angola (1580ce-1640ce), Suriname (1593ce-1629ce), Palau (1710ce-1899ce), Equatorial Guinea (1778ce-1968ce), Western Sahara (1884ce-1975ce), Morocco (1912ce-1956ce)
Songhai Empire 1464ce 1591ce Mauritania, Benin, Mali, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, Guinea, Niger, Burkina Faso (1464ce-1591ce)
Shibanid Empire 1500ce 1598ce Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan (1500ce-1598ce)
Safavid Dynasty 1501ce 1736ce Iran, Russia, Georgia, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kuwait, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria (1501ce-1736ce)
Mughal Empire 1504ce 1858ce Afghanistan (1504ce-1747ce), India (1526ce-1858ce), Pakistan (1526ce-1750ce), Bangladesh (1576ce-1765ce)
Aceh Sultanate 1528ce 1903ce Brunei, Indonesia (1528ce-1903ce)
Johor-Riau Empire 1528ce 1855ce Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia (1528ce-1855ce)
French colonial empires 1534ce 2007ce France (1534ce-2007ce), Canada (1534ce-1763ce), Saint Kitts and Nevis (1624ce-1783ce), Haiti (1627ce-1804ce), United States (1660ce-1803ce), Senegal (1677ce-1960ce), India (1692ce-1954ce), Mauritius (1721ce-1810ce), Seychelles (1756ce-1810ce), Dominican Republic (1795ce-1809ce), Malta (1798ce-1798ce), Algeria (1830ce-1962ce), Gabon (1839ce-1960ce), Cote d'Ivoire (1843ce-1960ce), China (1849ce-1949ce), New Caledonia (1853ce-1999ce), Vietnam (1858ce-1954ce), Djibouti (1862ce-1977ce), Cambodia (1863ce-1953ce), Comoros (1866ce-1975ce), Congo (1875ce-1960ce), Mali (1880ce-1960ce), Tunisia (1881ce-1957ce), Vanuatu (1887ce-1980ce), Central African Republic, Guinea (1891ce-1958ce), Laos (1893ce-1953ce), Burkina Faso, Madagascar (1896ce-1960ce), Chad (1900ce-1960ce), Mauritania (1902ce-1960ce), Benin (1904ce-1958ce), Morocco (1912ce-1956ce), Cameroon (1914ce-1960ce), Togo (1916ce-1960ce), Syria (1920ce-1946ce), Lebanon (1920ce-1943ce), Niger (1922ce-1958ce), Libya (1943ce-1951ce)
Kaabu Empire 1537ce 1867ce Guinea-Bissau, Senegal (1537ce-1867ce)
Maravi Empire 1575ce 1750ce Mozambique, Zambia, Malawi (1575ce-1750ce)
British Empire 1583ce 2002ce United Kingdom (1583ce-1997ce), United States (1607ce-1776ce), Bermuda (1612ce-1997ce), Saint Kitts and Nevis (1623ce-1983ce), Barbados (1624ce-1966ce), Haiti (1631ce-1659ce), Antigua and Barbuda (1632ce-1981ce), Jamaica (1655ce-1962ce), Gambia (1664ce-1965ce), Belize (1665ce-1981ce), India (1665ce-1947ce), Bahamas (1666ce-1973ce), Canada (1668ce-1867ce), Cayman Islands (1670ce-2002ce), Gibraltar (1704ce-2002ce), Pakistan (1748ce-1947ce), Grenada (1762ce-1974ce), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1763ce-1979ce), Bangladesh (1765ce-1971ce), Falkland Islands (1766ce-2002ce), Samoa (1768ce-1962ce), Turkmenistan (1783ce-1997ce), Sierra Leone (1787ce-1961ce), Australia (1788ce-1901ce), Seychelles (1794ce-1976ce), Sri Lanka (1795ce-1948ce), Maldives (1796ce-1965ce), Namibia (1797ce-1990ce), South Africa (1797ce-1910ce), Oman (1798ce-1971ce), Malta (1800ce-1964ce), Ireland (1801ce-1919ce), Trinidad and Tobago (1802ce-1962ce), Argentina (1806ce-1825ce), Mauritius (1810ce-1968ce), Guyana, French Guiana (1814ce-1966ce), Malaysia (1819ce-1957ce), Ghana (1821ce-1957ce), Singapore (1824ce-1963ce), Myanmar (1824ce-1948ce), Yemen (1839ce-1967ce), Afghanistan (1839ce-1919ce), New Zealand (1840ce-1907ce), Hong Kong (1841ce-1997ce), Nigeria (1861ce-1960ce), Bhutan (1865ce-1935ce), Lesotho (1868ce-1966ce), Fiji (1874ce-1970ce), Bahrain (1880ce-1971ce), Papua New Guinea (1884ce-1906ce), Botswana (1885ce-1966ce), Somalia (1887ce-1960ce), Brunei (1888ce-1984ce), Kenya (1888ce-1963ce), Malawi (1889ce-1964ce), Uganda (1890ce-1962ce), United Arab Emirates (1892ce-1971ce), Solomon Islands (1893ce-1978ce), Kuwait (1899ce-1961ce), Sudan, South Sudan (1899ce-1956ce), Tonga (1900ce-1970ce), Swaziland (1903ce-1968ce), Nauru (1914ce-1968ce), Cameroon (1914ce-1961ce), Cyprus (1914ce-1960ce), Egypt (1914ce-1922ce), Kiribati (1916ce-1979ce), Qatar (1916ce-1971ce), Togo (1916ce-1956ce), Tanzania (1919ce-1961ce), Israel (1920ce-1948ce), Iraq (1920ce-1932ce), Zimbabwe (1923ce-1980ce), Zambia (1924ce-1964ce), Eritrea (1941ce-1993ce)
Dutch Empire 1602ce 1975ce Netherlands (1598ce-1975ce), Ghana (1598ce-1872ce), Indonesia (1602ce-1962ce), United States (1614ce-1664ce), Guyana (1630ce-1815ce), Brazil (1630ce-1654ce), Aruba (1636ce-1973ce), Mauritius (1638ce-1710ce), Sri Lanka (1639ce-1795ce), Singapore (1641ce-1825ce), Angola (1641ce-1648ce), Maldives (1645ce-1796ce), Malaysia (1650ce-1824ce), South Africa (1652ce-1814ce), India (1654ce-1825ce), Suriname (1667ce-1975ce)
Swedish Empire 1611ce 1721ce Sweden, Russia, Finland, Estonia (1611ce-1721ce), Latvia (1629ce-1721ce), Denmark (1645ce-1721ce), Ghana, Germany, United Kingdom, Poland, United States, Togo (1648ce-1721ce), Norway (1658ce-1719ce)
Qing Dynasty 1637ce 1912ce South Korea (1637ce-1895ce), Afghanistan, Russia, Kazakhstan, Vietnam, North Korea, India, Pakistan, China, Mongolia, Bhutan, Tajikistan, Myanmar (1644ce-1912ce)
Omani Empire 1650ce 1970ce Oman (1650ce-1970ce), Pakistan (1650ce-1958ce), Mozambique, Tanzania, Somalia, Kenya (1650ce-1856ce), Yemen, United Arab Emirates (1650ce-1820ce)
Maratha Empire 1674ce 1818ce Pakistan, India (1674ce-1818ce)
Hotaki Dynasty 1709ce 1738ce Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (1709ce-1738ce)
Kong Empire 1710ce 1898ce Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire (1710ce-1898ce)
Russian Empire Romanov 1721ce 1917ce Tajikistan, China, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Sweden, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Azerbaijan, Latvia, Turkey, Finland, Armenia, Turkmenistan, Estonia, Kazakhstan (1721ce-1917ce), Lithuania (1772ce-1917ce), Romania, Poland (1801ce-1917ce), Georgia (1812ce-1917ce), Iran (1826ce-1917ce), Kyrgyz Republic (1864ce-1917ce)
Afsharid Dynasty 1736ce 1796ce United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran, Armenia (1736ce-1796ce), India (1738ce-1796ce), Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (1740ce-1796ce), Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Turkey (1741ce-1796ce), Georgia, Oman (1742ce-1796ce), Russia (1743ce-1796ce)
Durrani Empire 1747ce 1818ce Afghanistan (1747ce-1818ce), Iran (1747ce-1800ce), Pakistan (1749ce-1818ce), India (1757ce-1800ce)
Zand Dynasty 1750ce 1794ce Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Russia, Armenia (1750ce-1794ce)
Futa Toro 1776ce 1871ce Mauritania, Senegal (1776ce-1871ce)
Kingdom of Siam 1782ce 1932ce Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar (1782ce-1932ce)
Qajar Dynasty 1789ce 1925ce Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Bahrain, Pakistan (1789ce-1925ce), Armenia, Georgia (1794ce-1828ce), Azerbaijan, Russia (1794ce-1813ce)
Sikh Empire 1799ce 1849ce India, China, Pakistan (1799ce-1849ce)
Lozi Empire 1800ce 1890ce Botswana, Angola, Namibia, Zambia (1800ce-1890ce)
Nguyen Dynasty 1802ce 1945ce China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia (1802ce-1945ce)
Fulani Empire (Sokoto) 1804ce 1903ce Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Niger (1804ce-1903ce)
Austrian Empire 1804ce 1867ce Ukraine, Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Austria, Slovak Republic, Romania, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic (1804ce-1867ce), Slovenia (1813ce-1867ce), Croatia (1814ce-1867ce), Albania (1816ce-1818ce)
First Mexican Empire 1821ce 1823ce Honduras, United States, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Belize, Mexico (1821ce-1823ce), Guatemala, Costa Rica (1822ce-1823ce)
Empire of Brazil 1822ce 1889ce Brazil, Uruguay (1822ce-1889ce)
Belgian Colonial Empire 1843ce 1962ce Belgium (1843ce-1960ce), Guatemala (1843ce-1854ce), Democratic Republic of the Congo (1885ce-1960ce), China (1900ce-1931ce), Tanzania (1916ce-1919ce), Italy (1919ce-1920ce), Burundi, Rwanda (1922ce-1962ce)
AustroHungarian Empire 1867ce 1918ce Liechtenstein, Germany, Slovenia, Italy, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Serbia, Romania, Croatia, Austria, Poland, France, Ukraine (1867ce-1918ce), Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908ce-1918ce)
Empire of Japan 1868ce 1947ce Japan (1868ce-1947ce), South Korea, Russia, North Korea, China (1905ce-1945ce), Vietnam, Laos (1940ce-1945ce), Malaysia, Myanmar, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Marshall Islands, Solomon Islands, Palau, Singapore, Cambodia, Philippines (1942ce-1945ce)
Italian Colonial Empire 1869ce 1947ce Italy (1869ce-1943ce), Eritrea (1885ce-1941ce), Somalia (1889ce-1941ce), Libya, Greece (1912ce-1947ce), Ethiopia (1936ce-1941ce), Albania (1939ce-1947ce)
German Empire 1871ce 1918ce Poland, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Belgium, Russia, France (1871ce-1918ce), Nauru, Palau, Namibia, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Marshall Islands (1884ce-1918ce), Cameroon (1884ce-1916ce), Solomon Islands (1885ce-1899ce), Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania (1890ce-1918ce), Togo (1905ce-1914ce)
Korean Empire 1897ce 1910ce South Korea, North Korea (1897ce-1910ce)
Third Reich 1933ce 1945ce Germany (1933ce-1945ce), Austria, Slovenia, Czech Republic (1938ce-1945ce), Poland, Lithuania (1939ce-1945ce), France, Netherlands, Romania, Belgium, Hungary (1940ce-1945ce), Montenegro, Russia, Greece, Serbia (1941ce-1945ce)

Data notes.